Неэффективность мелких хозяйств — обман?
Если Вы уже испытали, что такое экономический коллапс, то сможете назвать парочку способов, как прокормить свою семью, имея малое количество денег. Что ещё важнее, Вы знает, как сделать это без пестицидов, гербицидов, фунгицидов и ГМО-семян. Около 20 миллионов акров обрабатываются 35 миллионами русских семей с использованием традиционной технологии, и мы, американцы, могли бы многому у них поучиться. Они выращивают свои собственные натуральные культуры - и это работает.
Согласно статистике, они выращивают 92% картофеля в стране, 77% овощей, 87% фруктов и кормят 71% населения с помощью натуральных частных ферм и домашних садов, расположенных по всей стране. Это не огромные агро-фермы, которыми управляют фармацевтические компании, это небольшие семейные фермы и сады, размером менее акра.
О чем идет речь (англ) - Согласно статистике они выращивают
When it's suggested that our food system be comprised of millions of small, organic gardens, there's almost always someone who says that it isn't realistic. And they'll quip something along the lines of, "There's no way you could feed the world's growing population with just gardens, let alone organically." Really? Has anybody told Russia this?
On a total of approximately 8 million hectares (20 million acres) of land, 16.5 million Russian families grow food in small-scale, organic gardens on their Dachas (a secondary home, often in the extra urban areas). Because growing your own food happens to be a long-lived tradition in Russia, even among the wealthy.
Based on the 1999 "Private Household Farming in Russia" Gosmkostat (State Committee for Statistics) statistics, these Dacha families produced:
- 38% of Russia's total agricultural output
- 41% of the livestock
- 82% of the honey
- 79% of the sold cattle
- 65% of the sold sheep and goats
- 59% of the milk
- 31% of the sold poultry
- 28% of the eggs
- 91% of the potatoes
- 76% of the vegetables
- 79% of the fruits
If Russian families can manage such production in their region's very short growing season (approx. 110 days), imagine the output most parts of the world could manage by comparison. Unfortunately in just the US alone, lawns take up more than twice the amount of land Russia's gardens do (est. 40-45 million acres).
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В недавнем докладе Agro-ecology and the Right to Food (Сельхоз-экология и Право на питание) говорится, что натуральные и жизнеспособные фермы малого размера могут удвоить производство продуктов питания в регионах мира, в которых голод – большая проблема. В течении 5-10 лет мы могли бы увидеть большой скачок в растениеводстве. Это помогло бы избавиться от ГМО-бизнеса в США.
[document file="http://voprosik.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Доклад-ООН-о-сельхозэкологии.pdf" width="600" height="400"]
Согласно World Watch, мы можем также успешно разводить рыбу и накормить планету. Жизнеспособные рыбные фермы, наряду с натуральным садоводством становятся новым агро-бизнесом.
О чем идет речь (англ) - Согласно World Watch
From Asia to North America, people are eating more seafood, either because it’s the most affordable form of protein (as in many poorer nations) or because it’s the latest health food trend (as in many wealthy nations). But as the demand for fish rises, populations of both marine and freshwater species are being overexploited, resulting in stagnant or declining catches from many wild fisheries.
As a result, seafood is shifting from being the last wild ingredient in our diet to being a highly farmed commodity. Farmed seafood, or aquaculture, now provides 42 percent of the world’s seafood supply and is on target to exceed half in the next decade. Fish farms are taking up more space on land and at sea, as farmers expand into new streams, bays, and oceans. Fish farming itself has morphed from a small-scale, artisanal pursuit into a large-scale science, with innovations in feed technology, cage design, and fish breeding.
Farmed seafood has certain advantages over wild fish in meeting modern demand. For a global marketplace that demands increasingly predictable products—uniform-sized fillets available year-round, free of the vagaries of weather or open-ocean fishing—fish farming delivers this predictability. Farms are also becoming more productive, raising fish at a lower cost and expanding the potential market.
Yet even as we depend more on farmed fish, several crises loom that may jeopardize future expansion of this industry. These include a growing scarcity of fish feed and rising concern about the social and ecological fallout from industrial aquaculture. Poorly run fish farms can generate coastal pollution in the form of excess feed and manure, and escaped fish and disease originating on farms can devastate wild fisheries. From salmon farms in Chile to tilapia farms in China, a narrowing base of genetic diversity means that farms will be increasingly susceptible to disease and other stresses, a wellknown pattern in agriculture that may play out in aquaculture.
But not all fish farming is created equal. Still today,most aquaculture is focused on seaweeds, shellfish, and other species that are low on the food chain, such as carp and tilapia. For much of the world, particularly the developing world, fish farming isn’t so much about profit as about having a steady supply of seafood to eat.Most fish farms are small in scale, rely on few inputs, and may be closely integrated with crop or livestock production. From the Philippines to Bangladesh to the southern United States, small-scale fish farmers often have higher and more stable incomes than nearby crop farmers.
Yet the greatest growth in fish farming today is occurring at the other end of the spectrum: large farms raising high-value, predatory fish such as salmon, striped bass, tuna, and shrimp. Raising these species is an exercise in “reducing” fish to produce fish—that is, in turning certain fish, usually smaller species such as anchovy, herring, capelin, and whiting, into feed for other, typically larger, species. Increasingly, we are fishing down the ocean chain so we can move up the fish-farming chain.
Despite ongoing improvements in feed ingredients and technologies, the rapid growth in fish farming in recent decades has effectively outweighed any gains in feeding efficiency. According to most estimates,modern fish farming is now a net drain on the world’s seafood supply. The global appetite for farmed fish is putting unsustainable strain on the world’s food resources.
As farmers raise more predatory species, a focus on well-designed fish farms will make a critical difference. To avert the looming feed crisis and to take pressure off perfectly edible wild fish, farmers could wean themselves off fishbased feed. And some innovative fish farmers are beginning to redesign their farms to function more like healthy aquatic ecosystems. Farms with high levels of integration can greatly reduce water pollution and disease levels. They can be a cost-effective way to recycle, clean, and store water supplies. They can even help rebuild wetlands and restock wild fisheries.
Properly guided, the explosive growth in fish farming may in fact be the most hopeful trend in the world food system. Compared to raising cows, pigs, or even chicken, aquaculture is remarkably efficient in its use of feed and water. And farmed fish are still generally lower on the food chain and less resource-intensive than the big predatory fish we catch in the seas. Rather than contributing to environmental degradation, fish farming can be a critical way to add to the global diet.
Yet there is no guarantee that aquaculture will move wholesale in a “greener” direction. Supportive government policies and a shift in consumer tastes will be essential to push farmers toward raising more-efficient species, such as carp, catfish, and shellfish. The seafood and aquaculture industries must also play a significant role. So far, producers and conservation groups have only begun discussing standards for farmed fish, despite a proliferation of ecolabels for wild seafood and other agricultural products.Without such standards, even concerned seafood eaters won’t be able to push the world’s fish farms in the right direction
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«У выращенных на ферме морепродуктов есть определённые преимущества перед дикими, удовлетворяющие современными требованиям. Для мирового рынка, который требует предсказуемые продукты – филе стандартного размера, круглогодичная доступность, вне зависимости от капризов погоды и рыбалки в открытом океане – рыбное фермерство обеспечит эту предсказуемость. Фермы также становятся более производительными, разводя рыбу по низкой себестоимости и расширяя потенциальный рынок», - пишет Брайан Холуэлл (Brian Halwell, Farming Fish for the Future).
Пока это будет делаться с успехом, без ГМО-лосося, мы действительно сможем накормить более 7 миллиардов человек.
О чем идет речь (англ) - ГМО-лосося
By summer of 2013, US governing bodies, or, the alphabet soup of corruption (USDA, FDA, etc.) are expected to grant permission for scientists to roll out genetically modified salmon and allow for genetic engineering in farm animals for human consumption.
Genetically Modified Salmon to Arrive Summer of 2013
These ‘foods’ are grown using growth hormone genes taken from sterile fish. The salmon that are grown using this form of GM farming will be the first in a series of about 30 fish that will be unleashed for pubic consumption. This time it isn’t Monsanto at the helm of the evil plot to make us sterile and cancerous, but a company named AquaBounty. One of its major shareholders is the Intrexon Corporation, owned by a pharmaceutical company called Clinical Data Inc (acquired by Forest Laboratories). This company is using world food shortages to justify growing genetically modified fish and farm animals, but arguably, there is no food shortage.
We throw away millions of tons of food every year. Countless people only starve due to the engine of political/corporate greed, like the 14.5 billion dollars worth of food heisted by politicians in India recently and kept from small village food pantries. North American food waste alone could feed the entire planet.
So what does a company like Aqua Bounty (Clinical Data, Inc.) stand to gain if we eat foods that cause cancer and make us infertile? We then have to buy cancer drugs and chemo. We just might think of taking drugs that make us able to create our own young. It wouldn’t be the worst plan to make us sick and desperate and milk us of our money. When will GMO stop? It’s beyond objectionable, it’s pure lunacy. Our entire food supply is being taken over by pharmaceutical companies.
Interestingly, a genetically modified salmon created by the company AquAdvantage was actually blocked for approval by Congress back in 2011 due to serious health concerns. The good news is, whether or not the FDA chooses to approve this genetically modified salmon for sale in the marketplace now, supermarkets like Whole Foods, Trader Joe’s, Aldi, and others have decided to refuse the sale of AquaBounty’s modified salmon.
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К сожалению, не все из нас хотят процветания натурального сельского хозяйства. Билл Гейтс, купивший в 2012 году 500 тысяч акций Монсанто – одна из ключевых фигур, утверждающих, что ГМО совершенно необходимы для борьбы с глобальным голодом.
О чем идет речь (англ) - утверждающих что ГМО совершенно необходимы
Bill Gates, the heavy Monsanto investor who purchased 500,000 shares of the biotech giant in 2010, has been touting Monsanto’s genetically modified creations as a tool that is necessary to prevent starvation in poor nations. The same poor nations where thousands of farmers routinely commit suicide after being completely bankrupt by Monsanto’s overpriced and ineffective GM seeds. The same company that we recently exposed to be running ‘slave-like’ working conditions, forcing poor workers to operate the corn fields for 14 hours per day while withholding pay.
According to Gates, this is the company whose GMO crops are going to save the world from starvation. Of course along with ‘saving the world from starvation’, GMO crops also bring along a large number of unwanted health and environmental effects. A prominent review of 19 studies examining the safety of these crops found that consumption of GMO corn or soybeans can lead to significant organ disruptions in rats and mice – particularly in the liver and kidneys.
Are Monsanto’s Devastating Creations Really the Answer to World Hunger?
What’s more is that Monsanto’s best selling herbicide Roundup has been completely devastating farmlands for years through the creation of resistant superweeds. Experts estimate Roundup usage to result in the destruction of over at least 120 million hectares of farmland thanks to these superweeds.
Is it any wonder that in 2008 a startling report uncovered Monsanto’s blatant abuse of poor farmers in the very poor countries that will supposedly benefit from GMO crops? Thanks to an article in the Daily Mail, it was revealed that thousands of farmers were committing suicide after using Monsanto’s GM seeds. Due to failing harvests and drastically inflated prices, the bankrupt poor farmers began taking their lives — oftentimes drinking the very same chemical concoctions provided by Monsanto as a method of suicide.
‘We are ruined now,’ said the dead man’s 38-year-old wife. ‘We bought 100 grams of BT Cotton. Our crop failed twice. My husband had become depressed. He went out to his field, lay down in the cotton and swallowed insecticide.’
Monsanto actually conned the farmers into buying their GM seeds, majorly overpriced and performing far worse than even traditional seeds. Monsanto went as far as to charge these poor farmers £10 for 100 grams of GM seed, while they could have purchased 1,000 times more traditional seeds for the same amount. The result? A career-ending harvest that led to mass farmer suicide.
It is quite clear that Monsanto really has no intention of helping these farmers fight starvation in their communities, as Monsanto investor Bill Gates would have you think. You can view Bill Gate’s speech about how GMO crops are the answer to starvation and see for yourself how he puts such strong emphasis on that selling point.
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Конечно, вместе со «спасением мира от голода»,
«Мы не избавимся от голода и не остановим климатические изменения с помощью промышленного фермерства на больших плантациях», - говорит Оливье Де Шютте (Olivier De Schutter).
О чем идет речь (англ) - говорит Оливье Де Шютте
The hold out for many of those that cling to conventional farming has often been that it will be impossible for organic farming to feed the world. It's more expensive and the crops aren't as strong, right? Wrong. This is far from the truth according to a new UN study reported on Civil Eats.
According to the report, Agro-ecology and the Right to Food, organic and sustainable small scale farming could double food production in the parts of the world where hunger is the biggest issue. Within five to 10 years we could see a big jump in crop cultivation.
"We won't solve hunger and stop climate change with industrial farming on large plantations," Olivier De Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food and author of the report, said in a press release. "The solution lies in supporting small-scale farmers' knowledge and experimentation, and in raising incomes of smallholders so as to contribute to rural development."
While this makes perfect sense, we've been led to believe from the factory farming industry and especially GMO heavy weights like Monsanto, that GMOs and conventional crops are what's necessary to feed the world. In fact, the opposite is true. Small scale farming, according to the report, can serve to create self sustainability amongst those in rural poverty.
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